Wednesday, December 14, 2016

Introduction to Android

Android is one of the Mobile based Operating systems that has changed the computing scenario by launching a customizable, user friendly and touch based Operating System. Though it was launched after I-Phone still it is the most dominant operating system within Mobiles and Tablets. The whole OS is based upon LINUX and was developed by a company called as ANDROID INCORPORATION. The company is ultimately acquired by Google because they wanted to enter into the Mobile Space Market.

History of Technology

At first it's important to know- What Technology is ?

We can say TECHNOLOGY is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a per-existing solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function.

Now, The one question which arises in our mind is-
- First, Do we know how sky touching Technology of present time has come into existence ?
- And the second one is  What conceptions are came into our mind when you think about the History of Technology?

If we talk about the history of the vehicles or any other thing then we get a picture in our mind that yes, this is the procedural evolution of this particular thing.

Firstly the ancient people used the  branches of tree for making wheels of their cart, Then People Started using animals to pull their Vehicles and after a procedural evolution the present view is the Uncountable rows of Cars and other vehicles  in the roads.

In the same way, Step by step evolution must be happened in the case of technology also, Am i right?

One thing is very known to us that the technology used in 1930-1940 during the World War II is very developed and vast in comparison to the technology used during 1910-1920 in World War I. People started to use Radio, Jeter Planes, Radar at the time of W.W.2 which were not used in W.W.1.

One thing is also known to us that Nearly whole world is participating in the W.W.2.Like Alaska, United states, Italy, Africa, Russia, Japan, Phillipines were in the main role or we can say that the WAR was geographical distributed in the whole globe.

So the communication between them is very important to proceed in WAR and the communication must be Wireless because they can not connect the whole world with wires at the WAR time.So they started to send their messages through Radio or other Wireless system.

A problem was arise to them, Problem with the Wireless Signal. We know what problems can arise  with Wireless communication?
The answer is,  Any body can listen or get that Signal by putting an Antenna.

So for the First time Germans started to use ENCRIPTED wireless signal. They made a Machine named as ENIGMA which can encrypt a easy code to a code which can not be understood by any unauthorized people who initially do not know the encryption code. 

So, The story began with Bletchley Park of England which was Established  in 1938 as a code-breaking center. Their was a top secret code braking effort started by the British Government. One of the Scientist named ALAN TURING who started to crack codes by using Mathematics and he believed that  “The codes are more crackable Than they think.”  So they build a Machine named BOMBE to crack codes which can brake the encrypted code very fastly using Mathematics. It was a Mechanical Computer.

Their after German Encryption was Improved. And they started to encrypt more sophisticated codes. Mechanical Computer could not  decrypt the codes anymore. That was WAR time and if the government investing so much money for an organization and the organization was unable to do their job any more so they forced to built something faster.

And then the people in Bletchley Park built an ELECTRONIC COMPUTER named as COLOSSUS which was more faster than BOMBE. It was the most powerful computer of the world at that time. All this things were kept Top Secret till 1960-1970.

When the WAR comes to an end. And can we guess what happened after the WAR ?

The Bletchley Park was closed, And the Scientists working their  went to different academic places like MIT,  HARWARD, MANCHESTER etc. And the main point is that What they did can not share to the world.
But one thing they realized that Electronics can do COMPUTATION  rapidly and Electricity can be used to represent DATA .
They were start doing research in Academic places and began to motivate and share their knowledge to others.
Then after few years of research a Series of computers came into existence like Manchester Baby, Ferranti Mark 1, Harward Mark 1 and US Army ENIAC. A giant calculator which can solve problems in Mathematics was built in Harvard named as The Harvard-IBM Mark 1.These computers are built in such kind of Architectures which are still use today.

Android Architecture in details ...

Linux Kernel-

In the linux kernel  we have libraries and android runtime that helps to work with different concepts.
For example SqlLite is a library to store data within the App. We can have media libraries to interact with Videos, Audios and Pictures etc. We also have a very important library called as WEBKIT.

What is WEBKIT in Android?

Webkit is an browser engine powering safari, Google Chrome and Android Internet browser.

Android Runtime-

Android Runtime is a component which takes care of the core services like Google MAP, Location Service and also provides a runtime for running our apps on Google's  Android Operating System.

Android gives every required functions to a App like Memory Management, Device Mangment and other jobs which are the application requisition. Its the runtime's responsibility to interact with whom the App requiring.

The runtime environment actually targets different architectures which exist on different phones. The runtime is able to understand and push the native code according to Architecture of  the phone.

Application framework-

Application framework is a layer through which different applications can interact from various activities with the phone. Every application can interact with defferent kinds of frameworks like notification framework, View framework and telephonic fraework and others.
These frameworks are the basic building blocks for android architecture. These frameworks contains reusable codes, libraries, controls that any application can use for interaction.


Application layer is the top layer within android architecture.this layer contains two types of application.
1. Inbuilt application
2.User defined Application

1.Inbuilt applications-
Inbuilt apps like Telephony, SMS and browser etc.
They interact with the application framework but they are the integral part of the android system.

2.User Defined Applications- 
 These are the apps which are developed by the end user or the third party developer like Facebook Whatsapp or Twitter etc. They also interact with the application framework and work on the same manner as Inbuilt Applications

ASP.NET Evolution in the Market ...

Till 2001 Microsoft is the king of the  software industry and most of the software’s are platform dependent only for its own operating system Microsoft Windows. But in the later years companies like Google, Ge-force, Apple and Amazon etc. give Microsoft a huge competition in acquiring the market position which force the Microsoft to change their Philosophy regarding their products and they do so for their survival.

.NET framework is completely a platform independent kind of web technology.

Before .NET

     VB        ---------------- >COMPILE ---------->creates .exe file which was
                                                                                      platform dependent.

     VS                                      IL/MSIL                                next version of
C# .NET  ----->COMPILE------->.exe file  ------->INTERPRET      ARM, LINUX, 
It performs on your code and change according to your platform                      


Intermediate Language:

it is a set of instances that can run by a specific interpretation on a specific platform. It is primarily included to make the platform independent for certain languages to work.

It is very similar with Java and works as follows ;

Java---Java code-->.class (Byte Code) ---Interpret---JRE, JVM (Plat. Inde)

VB.NET, C#---> .exe (Binary code) ---Interpret--->.NET Framework

.Net framework 3.5 (2008)  and .NET framework 3.0

3.5 And 3.0 Framework was introduce when Windows VISTA was launched. Technology like LINQ, WINDOWS Communication Foundation, and Windows Workflow Foundation were introduce with windows VISTA.

In the upcoming posts you would come to know about .NET Framework 4.0 and 4.5 and I will also explain some of the common term like CLR, CLS, and CTS...